Welcome to eClinPath, an online textbook on Veterinary Clinical Pathology

The goal of this site is to be an educational resource on veterinary clinical pathology – an “on-line” textbook as it were. We hope this will be a valuable resource, as are the several available paper textbooks on this discipline. We continually strive to update and modify the site and appreciate your feedback.

Follow us on twitter for updates, alerts re case of the month or info on articles we have just read: @eClinPathCU or Clin Path at Cornell. Like us on Facebook (Clinical Pathology at Cornell University) or follow us on Instagram account (eclinpath_cornell)…linked them all to the best of our ability….

Please note, that everything on this site is subject to copyright under a Creative Commons license (see terms of use below or the copyright link in the left hand side menu). If you wish to cite us, refer to the about us page or refer to the information below.

The site is organized into sections as indicated by the tabs and top navigation bar (calculations, case of the month). Each section provides detailed information on related topics and is continually updated so keep checking (and stay tuned for more). All the information from our old site is here, much of which has been updated (those sections that are not updated will be in due course). Some sections have new information (e.g. test basics) but are still not to the point where we wish them to be. Our clinical pathology data calculators, cytology and exotics pages are definitely works in progress.  Below under each section, we have added an update list. We will only use this major updates and changes, not minor things such as an addition or correction here or there, addition of a reference etc. As we add new pages, we will be providing references (with links to PubMed etc – we have provided a list of references used to create the initial site below) and as we update our old pages, we will also strive to add references to those (this will be a long term slow project, but bear with us).

  • Atlas: This is a quick reference guide that provides various clinical pathologic images, including hematology (e.g. normal leukocytes and erythrocytes by species), urine sediment examination (e.g. crystals, cells), and cytology. We plan to add a lot more, so stay tuned. This section of the site is currently not searchable using the generic search tool, but this will change.
    • Update on hematology atlas:
      • Ruminant blood gallery: Added more images (February 2019)
      • Equine blood gallery: Added some algorithms (December 2018)
      • Leukemia gallery:
        • Added more images (March 2018, September 2018)
    • Update on bone marrow atlas:
      • Have now added non-neoplastic marrows (including histologic images), dysplastic marrows, acute leukemia (September 2018)
    • Update on cytology atlas:
    • Avian hematology atlas: Since there are so many species differences and unique changes, we have created a separate avian hematology but not cytology (found under exotic cytology) atlas. We have started on RBC and WBC albums (November 2018) and will include species-specific albums eventually.
    • Exotic atlas: This includes birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish.
      • Started on an exotic hematology and cytology album, which only includes a few blood pictures from snakes, skinks, fresh water fish and frogs, and a few images of cytology in birds, frogs (feces), snakes (regurgitated material) and fish (July 2018).
    • Zoo/Wildlife album: This includes other zoo and wildlife species not included in the small mammals, exotic and other atlases above.
  • Diagnostic challenge: Challenge yourself with classic and interesting cases we have seen at Cornell University. Search our index for old cases! As for the Atlas, this section is currently not searchable through the generic search tool.
  • Calculations: This takes you to conversion formula (standard international to conventional units) and other clinical pathologic-related calculations, e.g. red blood cell indices (e.g. mean cell volume), reticulocyte counts (e.g. absolute reticulocyte count), fractional excretion of electrolytes (e.g. sodium). Under construction.
  • Test basics: Information on reference intervals, non-disease variables that impact test results (e.g. hemolysis, lipemia, icterus, including a table that summarizes common artifacts seen with laboratory tests). We plan to add sections on statistical concepts important to clinical pathology (e.g. sensitivity, specificity). 
    • Update: Added a new page on quality assurance and quality control.
    • Update: Made major changes to the reference interval page, adding information on subject-based reference values and index of individuality.
  • Hematology: Information on all aspects of hematology and is organized into sections based on cell types in blood (leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets). See also the Atlas for image compilations.
  • Hemostasis: Information on the physiology of hemostasis, clinical signs, diagnostic testing (including sample collection), hemostatic disorders and transfusion medicine.
  • Urinalysis: Information on urine production and urine components (chemicals, cells, casts, crystals). See also the Atlas for image compilations.
  • Chemistry: Information on sample collection, chemistry analytes (provided on most biochemical panels), techniques used to measure variables (e.g. potentiometry, electrophoresis) and organ function.
    • Update: Updated many of the pages on renal physiology and acid base. 
  • Cytology: Information on sample collection and expected cytologic findings with different processes. See also the atlas for image compilations. Under construction.
    • Updates on bone marrow pages, which is now split up into various pages, including indications, methods for collection, cytologic evaluation and general interpretation (January 2019).
  • ExoticsClinical pathologic testing of exotic animal species (reptiles, amphibians, small mammals). Under construction.

Cite this site

We usually do not recommend that you cite this page, but if you choose to site us, you should provide the following: eClinPath.com followed by the url of the page you are citing and date accessed (since the page may change with updates).


We are striving to add primary literature references to all sections of this website. This will be done as we modify and update pages and will be done with all new pages. When this site was created, it was for the sole purpose of providing students in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University to supplement the new (at the time, in 1999) problem-based curriculum. At that time, there were few textbooks available on veterinary clinical pathology (now there are a plethora). So the original content was based on information in these available textbooks:

  • Clinical Pathology book: An internal resource generated by Drs. Julia Blue and Tracy French.
  • Tietz: Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, third edition.
  • Duncan and Prasse: Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (first edition).
  • Kaneko: Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals (first edition).
  • Jain: Essentials of Veterinary Hematology
  • Schalm’s: Veterinary Hematology (the old yellow original one, still a favorite)
  • Osborne: Urinalysis: A Clinical Guide to Compassionate Patient Care

More recently, we have, of course, used:

  • Stockham and Scott: Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology