Instructional videos


On this page, we have provided links to videos that clinical pathology faculty and trainees at Cornell University have created for educational purposes. 

PCV/total protein

In this video, we demonstrate how to measure a packed cell volume and total protein in EDTA-anticoagulated blood. The total protein result is provided on our hemogram results and is measured with a refractometer. The latter determines refractive index, which is influenced by soluble particles in plasma, such as protein and other so-called non-protein solids, e.g. urea nitrogen, glucose. 


Blood smear

In this video, we demonstrate how to make a high-quality blood smear for blood smear examination.


Quick stain

This video demonstrates an optimal method for staining blood and cytologic smears with a rapid or quick stains, with examples of over- and understained blood smears.


Hemogram overview

A wealth of data is provided with the hemogram. Here, we outline how to approach this data to figure out what is going wrong with the animal, i.e. to identify pathologic processes such as anemia, inflammation or leukemia. We use hemogram results from a dog to show this approach, which involves breaking down the data into components for ease of interpretation: Erythrogram, leukogram and thrombogram, followed by plasma appearance and total protein measurement by refractometer.